What Are Phytonutrients?

Folk wisdom has always singled out fruits and vegetables as being indispensable for health, but it has only been within the last thirty years that we know why. Science and technology have isolated compounds in plants and vegetables that have literally been our life-savers. These are phytonutrients which all fruits and vegetables produce because their means of survival in the environment is through the release of disease-fighting phytochemicals.

Phytochemicals stimulate the production of protective self-repairing cells in plants. They also produce the same kinds of responses in humans. For example, they release protective enzymes that inhibit cancer-producing substances, thus reducing our susceptibility to disease. It makes sense for us to harness the powers of plants in our diets. Four sources of phytonutrients that cannot be ignored if we want to remain healthy and cancer free are berries, cruciferous and dark, leafy vegetables, soy and red wine.

Berries, such as blueberries, cranberries, strawberries, blackberries, raspberries offer the highest sources of phytonutrients. They all produce a natural substance called ellagic acid which has been shown to be a good defense against carcinogens because they suppress tumor development. Blueberries have the highest antioxidant content. High in flavonoids, they also provide powerful protection against prostate cancer.

Two and a half cups of fresh strawberries a day can supply enough vitamin C to help restore sperm production in men. Cranberries have been known to prevent cystisis, a painful and often recurring urinary tract infection in women. A study involving 72 postmenopausal women found that 10 ounces of cranberry juice every day reduced the likelihood of bladder infection by 58%. Cranberries have also been shown to reduce stomach ulcers and lower LDL cholesterol levels.

Cruciferous vegetables (like broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower) and dark leafy vegetables (like swiss chard, spinach) also have high levels of antioxidant phytonutrients. In a study conducted by New York’s Strang-Cornell Cancer Research Laboratory, women who consumed a diet high in cruciferous vegetables experienced a dramatic drop in estrogen levels, which means that these vegetable are definitely powerful tools for fighting against breast cancer. The assumption is that the phytochemicals in these vegetables deactivate potent estrogens, thus preventing estrogen-sensitive cells, particularly in the breast , from developing tumors.

Sulforaphane, another phytochemical in cruciferous vegetables, triggers a self-defense system in the body that acts to detoxify carcinogens. Spinach contains four times more beta carotene than broccoli and is a good source of vitamins C and E. It also has high levels of photosynthetic proteins which convert sunlight into energy. Researchers at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology are harnessing the power of spinach in a new direction–creating highly cost-effective solar panels.

Soy is another phytonutrient rich food. Soy products contain genestein, which has been shown to have strong anti-cancer properties. It contains as well phytoestrogen, which has been shown to reduce the risk and spread of prostate cancer. Researchers suggest that the phytonutrient isoflavones, like phytoestrogen, may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

Another isoflavone compound in soy called daidzein has also been found to improve cholesterol and triglyceride levels in women. A study conducted at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles has uncovered evidence that this estrogen-like compound is the main reason for soy’s healthy effects. Women with low estrogen levels seemed to have benefited most from daidzein, which reduced LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels, leading researchers to recommend that women include soy food products as part of their cardiovascular risk reduction strategies.

And last but not least is the phytonutrient, resveratrol, found in red wine, that literally makes wine drinking a cancer-fighting measure. Resveratrol is present in the leaves, twigs and bark of the grape vines. And red wine, which is fermented from grape skins, seeds and twigs tends to have large quantities of these cancer-fighting substances.

Resveratrol has also been demonstrated to be a potent antioxidant (more potent than vitamin C alone) which can act synergistically with vitamin C, thus enhancing the effects of each. It also prevents the formation of blood clots and promotes the formation of new dendrites in the brain.

Let us put all these phytonutrients to good use. Why not sit down to a hearty soy burger, broccoli spears and cauliflower salad, warm berry compote and a glass of red wine? Yummy! Life cannot be better!

tips for maintaining healthy

If the womb of a woman kept in good condition and allow it to thrive in conditions of optimum health, likely contracted the disease will lower uterus and fertility will be higher. For a woman, the health of the uterus is very important for the formation of life, so keeping the reproductive organs working properly is crucial. Uterine health problems can also make a lot of pain, especially because the muscles in the uterus undergoes a stress present, monthly menstruation. Here are some tips for maintaining a healthy uterus.
Diet determines the general health of the body, and that will be the deciding factor whether the uterus who receive the necessary nutrients and vitamins to support a healthy reproductive system or not.
Examination with gynecologist, proper sexual health, and stress management is necessary to preserve the health of the uterus.
How sexual impact on health of the uterus?
Sexual health has a great impact on a woman and her womb. Using the method of sex is a free, secure method to help keep the vagina and uterus from contracting the infection, which can cause damage or destruction to the function of the uterus. Condoms are an effective form of protection that can help to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cancer possibilities.
How to Monitor the health of the uterus with the provider?
Conduct annual checks will help to keep your system in the best shape possible. Annual Pap smears to determine if there is anything that will reduce the chances of developing cervical cancer, which in later stages can affect the uterus. Menyanngkut quick reprodukksi problems, care for them will become more simple
What exercise is good for the health of the uterus?
Being active is a good way to lose weight and increase blood circulation, which affects reproductive health in a positive way. Yoga is listed as a method of exercise that can help the health of the uterus. Those who have a uterus tilts backwards it is recommended that one can participate in yoga exercises to help reposition the uterus to the right place. Daily exercise is a great way to improve blood circulation and creating an excellent environment for the health of the uterus.
A clean Diet, plenty of exercise to encourage blood circulation, and use proper protection during sex will help maintain a health and her womb. A healthy womb fertile womb and is also capable of warding off disease. Uterine health can also affect the vagina and the surrounding area. Ensure that the uterus is healthy should be very important for all women in every stage of life.

Treatment for Ovarian Cancer

The ovary, which is an oval-shaped ovum-producing reproductive organ, is a part of the female vertebrate reproductive system usually found in pairs. These ovaries produce eggs called ova and female hormones. They are responsible for the controlling the development of the female body characteristics like the breasts, body hair, and body shape. The female’s menstrual cycle and pregnancy are also dependable with the ovaries that’s why they are one of the most essential female organs.

What is ovarian cancer?

A cancer that starts in the tissues of the ovaries is what you call ovarian cancer. It can either be a cancer that starts in the cells on the ovary surface (ovarian epithelial carcinomas), a cancer that starts in the egg cells (malignant germ cell ovarian tumors), a cancer that develops within the cells that grasps the ovaries together, or a metastatic cancer that spreads to other spots in the body. This certain type of cancer has been found with an unknown cause. Developing an ovarian cancer emerges to be influenced by quite a lot of factors such as:

– Intake of estrogen replacement only without progesterone
– A medical condition called endometriosis
– Certain genes defects
– Obesity
– Smoking
– Aging

What is the treatment for ovarian cancer?

The treatment for ovarian cancer can either be a surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, diphtheria toxin-encoding DNA, or a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Studies have shown that treatment for ovarian cancer in specialized hospitals offer better results than the treatment for ovarian cancer given in general hospitals. Often, these treatments for ovarian cancer rely on the stage of disease which is related to the degree or amount of spread of the cancer. Here is a list of the treatment for ovarian cancer:

Surgery – it is the process of removing the cancer from the ovary and the other parts of the body where it is possible

Chemotherapy – this is the method of using chemicals to destroy cancer cells

Radiotherapy or Radiation Treatment – this means of treating ovarian cancer can be used only in some instances; it makes use of high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells present in the ovary

Diphtheria Toxin-encoding DNA – the nanoparticle delivery of this certain DNA decreases the burden of ovarian tumors; it targets only tumor cells leaving healthy cells in good physical shape

It should be noted that these treatments for ovarian cancer vary from the level of the spread of the cancer cells as not all treatments are effective for the different stages of ovarian cancer.

Sunscreen Facts – What You Don't Know Can Hurt You and Your Children

News reports are abundant concerning a recent study conducted on the sunscreen industry. The Environmental Working Group, a Washington-based nonprofit, has released an investigation of nearly 1,000 brand-name sunscreens that says that “Only 15% met the panel’s criteria for safety and effectiveness”, and “that 4 out of 5 don’t adequately protect consumers and may contain ingredients with significant known or suspected health hazards.” The report continues: “Some of the products of the nation’s leading brands are the worst offenders.”

Coppertone was named by the Environmental Working Group as having 41 products that failed to meet the group’s criteria for safety and effectiveness for issues ranging from failing to protect adequately to containing potentially harmful ingredients to making unsubstantiated claims. Only 1 of 103 products from Banana Boat and Neutrogena — the second- and third-largest manufacturers is recommended by EWG.

EWG is asking these questions for consumers and pushing the FDA to finalize comprehensive sunscreen safety standards it bagan drafting 30 years ago:

– Does it adequately protect from the damaging rays of the sun? Skin cancers are the fastest growing type of cancer in the United States. Skin cancer represents the most commonly diagnosed malignancy, surpassing lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. More than 1 million Americans will be diagnosed with skin cancer in 2008. Overexposure to UV-radiation can cause skin cancer. UVA & UVB have both been implicated in causing DNA damage resulting in cancer.

EWG’s study revealed that 7 percent of high SPF sunscreens (SPF of at least 30) protect only from sunburn (UVB radiation), and do not contain ingredient combinations known to protect from UVA, the sun rays linked to skin damage and aging, immune system problems, and potentially skin cancer. FDA does not require that sunscreens guard against UVA radiation. So, apparently, most of them don’t.

– Does it include potentially harmful ingredients?
One example: Oxybenzone is a a popular chemical UV filter in many sunscreens. The Environmental Working Group says its analysis of hundreds of studies of more than a dozen sunscreen chemicals finds that oxybenzone can penetrate the skin and pose health concerns, anything from hormone disruption to cancer. Over 500 of the sunscreens studied contain Oxybenzone. Of the name-brand sunscreens investigated, over 700 are on the “caution” list for containing potentially hazardous ingredients.

EWG recommends looking for sunscreens containing physical blockers,such as titanium dioxide or zinc oxide as a safer alternative.

– Does the sunscreen break down in the sun?
Many sunscreen ingredients break down in the sun, some in a matter of minutes, and then let UV radiation through to the skin. EWG’s analyses show that 48% of products on the market contain ingredients that may be unstable alone or in combination, raising questions about whether these products last as long as the label says. FDA has not proposed requirements for sunscreen stability.

– Does the product do what it claims on the label?
o Broad-spectrum protection
o All day protection
o Waterproof
o Chemical-free

Many products on the market bear claims that are considered “unacceptable” or misleading under FDA’s draft sunscreen safety standards. Claims like “all day protection,” “mild as water,” and “blocks all harmful rays” are not true, yet are found on bottles. Until the FDA sets an effective date for these standards, the industry is free to use hyped claims. Because of the lack of regulation, companies are free to make their own decisions on everything from advertising claims to product quality. Companies’ decisions to inflate claims has spurred class action lawsuits in California.


While the FDA has not regulated the industry adequately, fortunately, there is a sunscreen manufacturer that truly holds the welfare of the consumers and the integrity of their product in high regard. They use all natural, effective sunscreen ingredients that have been proven to be safe, they don’t test on animals, they insure that their manufacturing plant performs without chemical runoff, and at the same time, they provide a line of skincare and suncare products that is truly effective and aesthetically pleasing. Their products do what they claim on their labels, they don’t make misleading claims.

There ARE moisturizers and sunscreens produced from all natural ingredients that adequately protect from the sun with active ingredients that are not considered health hazards and inactive ingredients that are actually beneficial to your skin’s health. One manufacturer specifically has been providing these since 1992 and has marketed exclusively to resorts in tropical locations around the world. These products are now available online.

The Importance of a Regular Health Check Up

Health is the most important thing in life. Everyone should address all of their health issues with a high quality service.

To maintain your health, you can choose a perfect health service with which you can get a good solution to all of your health problems. There are a number of Health Clinics London that can provide a better solution to all of your health concerns.

Get a Better Solution

Sexually transmitted disease and many types of cancer kill a lot of women who are unaware of what is happening to their body. So get educated and have frequent health check-ups with no stress. Choose a better provider where you can get a better solution to many health problems in their initial stage.

* See that clinics provide their service at any time of the day. Many people work at different times. It is essential you can get treatment or an appointment whenever you are free at a time that suits you.

* Before choosing a doctor or medical centre, check other information relating to it. Ensure the medical practitioner and their staff are dedicated professionals who provide the best service.

* A few clinics provide women’s health services and will offer a comprehensive range of services for many women’s health issues. Health concerns relating to women are available at these centres, including cervical cancer, cervical screens and many vaccinations.

* Get an immediate consultation after making an appointment if you are suffering from any health problem. All necessary tests should be performed and results given immediately, with further guidance offered by the committed staff of London occupational health centres.

Get a Quick Service

If you have any health problem, you can see your doctor immediately and get a very fast service on the same day. In addition, medications prescribed are available close to the centre so you need not search for them. Booking an appointment can be done on the phone, saving you a lot of time, with your consultation performed in the time of the appointment.

Getting a regular health check up will help you stay fit and avoid all unwanted health complications. Identifying any health issues in the initial stages means a better chance of a cure before it becomes more severe.

Find a health service centre close to your home or office so that you can visit while traveling to and from work easily.

Choose a centre equipped with advanced medical equipment so that diagnosing any disease will be simple. They should also provide all reports and official medical certificates in advance of any long holidays. Get all bills, test results and stay fit under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.

Resource : http://goarticles.com/article/The-Importance-of-a-Regular-Health-Check-Up/8013847/

Nutrition and Menopause

Every year 4,000 or more women enter menopause and spend about a 1/3 of their life time in that state. For some women, menopause causes no major changes in their lifestyle and has little effect on their mood or physical well being. For others, the symptoms and emotional upheaval can be overwhelming. Some of the most common symptoms of menopause include:

-Hot flashes

-Vaginal dryness

-Bone loss

-Increased risk of urinary tract infections

-Painful intercourse

For most women, menopause may cause no symptoms at all. For as many as 20% of women, however, menopause can be disabling. Some of the symptoms can be made worse by the emotional changes that the woman is also dealing with at the same time. (Source: Christine Ammer. The New A to Z of Women’s Health. Fifth Edition. Check Mark Books, New York, New York)

Soy proteins have phytoestrogens in them that can create a 45% reduction in hot flashes as well as reduce the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Soy-based protein may also have a number of other benefits related to menopause. These include a decreased risk of certain cancers, reduced risk of diabetes, increased control over existing cases of diabetes and a reduction in kidney stones and/or gallstones. It also has benefits related to blood pressure and the overall lipid profile.

Miso, a fermented soybean paste, is eaten frequently by women in Japan, who may have several bowls of miso soup each day. It has been shown to be beneficial for treatment not only of menopause, but also to reduce the risk of breast cancer and to increase bone density in post-menopausal women. (Source: Creighton University School of Medicine, Alternative Medicine. Soy Protein and Menopause)

In addition to eating more healthy diets, doctors also encourage women to continue or begin exercise programs because many women start gaining additional weight as their metabolism slows down. Activity can also make the symptoms of menopause seem less severe. Daily exercise also plays a role in better heart health, helps control of diabetes and can also prevent other health conditions. It may also help to make the woman feel more energetic and youthful, which has also been shown to improve the severity of menopausal symptoms.

Beginning a walking program is a good start, but women should also be doing some weight training exercises as well.


Many women, especially those who are concerned with gaining weight, may stop eating the right foods or eating enough, slowing their metabolism and causing the weight gain they were trying to avoid in the first place. The body needs to have the right fuel to work correctly and will do whatever it takes to receive this energy. Having enough protein in the diet is important not only because it is vital to every cell and function in the body, but also because it plays an important role in metabolism and hunger control. Starting the day with a protein and carbohydrate rich breakfast can give you the energy needed to get moving and to keep going throughout the whole day. If you are not allowing yourself to go too long without eating, you will not have problems with cravings and won’t need to rely on willpower to avoid the candy machine or the fast food restaurants.

Supplements are a great way to make sure that you are getting enough protein in your diet, and can come from one of four sources: whey, soy, rice and egg. All protein supplements have their pros and cons that should be carefully considered before they are added to the diet. In addition, it is important to know how much protein is required for your individual dietary needs.

Soy and rice protein are acceptable for those who are following a vegan or vegetarian diet, while whey and egg are only acceptable to certain types of vegetarians. Because food allergies can be a problem, it is advisable to start these supplements with great caution and only after talking to a doctor first.

In addition to these, there is another option, one that is much smaller and can be more convenient than the others. Profect, from Protica, is a small protein supplement shot that is less than three ounces in size and only one hundred calories. It delivers 25 grams of protein per serving, however, and is available in a number of fruit flavors.

Protein and Menopause: A Case Study

After a year of hit or miss menstrual cycles, Shirley is sure that she has finally managed to make it through “The Change,” as menopause is often called. While her sister had no symptoms at all, Shirley finds herself soaked with sweat when everyone else around her is perfectly cool and comfortable. She has been back and forth to her doctor for a urinary tract infection that just comes and goes all of the time and has been irritable and weepy with her friends and family. She is most upset by the fact that she has gained 20 pounds in a year-long period.

After talking to her doctor, who confirms that she is indeed going through menopause, Shirley will start a new diet plan and will be exercising as well. In place of her fatty fried foods, she will eat fresh vegetables and greens and will opt for whole grain breads and pastas in smaller serving sizes than she had previously used.

In addition, her between meal snacks will now be servings of Profect, which will give her the protein she needs as well as keeping her fuller for longer. This way she keeps her metabolism working the way it should without overeating or starving herself. It also will help her have the energy that she needs to exercise during the day.

Nutrition For Seniors

It seems each time you switch on the TV or look in a magazine you see a story about the problem of worldwide obesity. People are getting more unhealthily overweight every day to the point of it becoming life threatening. In the past, there have always been a small number of people who ate unhealthy foods, but now that number is quickly growing. We need to carefully consider how our unhealthy diet affects us.

Eating the wrong types of food can cause us to feel lethargic and sluggish. We’re getting the wrong kinds of nutrients from all this junk food we consume. It’s important to consider the quality of the food we eat, especially if you are a senior. As we age, our metabolism slows down quite a bit. We can’t burn the calories at the same rate as when we were kids. This is what makes older people put on weight more easily and makes it harder to take off too. Gaining weight may affect seniors in a negative way, more so than younger people. Being overweight can put a lot of stress on your joints and can accelerate the problems of osteoporosis and arthritis. It can also contribute to other illnesses and muscle disorders. Being overweight can bring on diabetes, which is very common to seniors.

Everyone should treat themselves to something they really like to eat, now and then, but one shouldn’t over do it. It’s important to maintain a balanced diet. A good diet for seniors could consist of: Up to ten servings of fresh fruits and vegetables. Up to ten servings of complex carbohydrates like pasta, bread, rice and cereals. Three servings of calcium containing products, such as cheese, yoghurt and milk (low fat is best). Two servings of fish, poultry or meat for protein. A large helping of fiber, such as fruit, vegetables and cereals. This diet will not only provide good health, but will also fulfill all of your nutritional needs. All of us, especially seniors should avoid salt and saturated fats. Salt is really bad for high blood pressure. If you do use salt, just use a tiny amount. Most foods naturally contain some salt, so we really don’t need to add any. Try not to use too much salt while baking and preparing food. Don’t keep the salt shaker on the table while eating either. This will help break you of the habit of salting your food. Besides laying off the salt, stay far away from saturated fat. The body just isn’t meant to handle it. Saturated fat is hard for your body to break down. It just sits around, clogging your arteries.

This is one of the main causes of obesity, cancer and gallbladder disease in our society today. Just as a well balanced diet can improve you health, a bad diet can cause it to deteriorate. This is especially dangerous for seniors. Seniors usually aren’t as active as young people and have a harder time working off the extra calories. If you can keep your weight down, you’ll improve your mobility and be able to burn more calories. It’s important for seniors to enjoy life. If you eat a sensible diet and maintain a proper weight, you’ll be around to enjoy your life a lot longer. You only get one chance at life. Make the most of it. Improve you diet today and you’ll be rewarded with good health and long life.

Heartburn Symptoms Can Be Dangerous. Here's Why

It may surprise you, but heartburn is one of the most common medical ailments in western countries. Data points to about 15 million Americans who endure heartburn symptoms daily; over 60 million people in America also experience these symptoms every month.

Even if healthy individuals can sporadically suffer from heartburn, it is when it occurs twice a week or more, meaning persistently that it is considered to be the result of a medical problem known as acid reflux or, as doctors call it, gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Heartburn is recognizable as a burning in the throat or the chest area, often times with a sour taste or bitter taste in the throat.

What is in your stomach is normally enzymes for digestion, stomach acid and related contents, which can all aggress the lining of the esophagus to cause burning and discomfort. GERD is the result of the lower esophageal sphincter (also called the LES – a “muscle-valve” closing off the stomach from the esophagus) not shutting properly. Stomach contents then finds its way back to the esophagus and causes heartburn by refluxing up to the esophageal lining.

Indigestion syndrome, dry, recurring coughs, voice alteration and hoarseness are all symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux disease. So are chest pains that feel like a heart attack, a sensation of globus pharyngis (the throat developing a lump at the back) and otalgia (ear pain). In relation to all of this, it is clear that heartburn is not the only symptom of GERD, even if it is the most often noticed.

Ignoring GERD can induce peptic stricture, where the lower end of the esophagus narrows because of injury and subsequent scar tissue. Peptic stricture often causes glutitional problems and patients have the impression of food getting blocked in the lower throat. For this reason, peptic stricture victims may lose body mass because they eat less. These symptoms often occur, and neglect of acid reflux can also provoke the development of different and severe complications.

When the esophageal lining is repeatedly attacked by leaked stomach acids, the human body tries to compensate by growing more cells like the ones in the intestinal lining. This is a way of achieving relief from heartburn symptoms. It is called Barrett’s esophagus condition, and is a further grave complication of acid reflux. Males over 45 having been victims of heartburn symptoms for over 10 years are the most probable victims of a cancer then developing. Even if Barrett’s esophagus itself is not fatal, one in fifty patients then proceed to a lethal form of cancer known as esophageal adenocarcinoma, a direct result of the foregoing.

Solutions of medication have a tendency to neglect fundamental internal causes of acid reflux. Temporary relief for GERD related suffering is all that these prescribed or over the counter medicaments will bring, as they only target the acid production as a way to decrease heartburn.

This is why medicine that works on the symptoms of GERD will almost surely be unsatisfactory as a valid long-term solution for acid reflux victims. The complex condition of acid reflux is set off by several hidden variables, including lifestyle and environmentally connected criteria, diet habits, inherited genetic traits, excess acidity and toxins in the circulation, poor digestion and so on.

Remedies of the holistic kind use a combination of the right lifestyle changes and specific diet changes with use of particular vitamin and herbal supplements, including removal of toxins and Candida control protocols.

Did you hear how your painful symptoms of heartburn could be fully and completely eliminated by following a holistic, all-natural plan? The holistic method is the only one that will get rid of your acid reflux by solving the fundamental problems to effect permanent and durable prevention.

Do You Have A Delayed Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Claim?

In cases involving the delayed diagnosis of prostate cancer most people focus only on whether the physician made a mistake. But this is only the first issue that an attorney must address when evaluating a potential claim. The other issue is whether there was any harm to the patient as a result of the physician’s mistake, and if there was, was it the type of harm that would merit pursuing a claim.

It is usually easy to determine whether a physician had information, in the form of an elevated PSA test result or an abnormal digital examination, suggestive of possible prostate cancer. It is also usually fairly easy to determine the amount of delay. This is normally the difference between when the patient was diagnosed and when the physician first had the information about the abnormal PSA or digital examination results.

What may be more difficult to determine is the extent of the injury to the patient. Unless the PSA exceeds at least a 10.0 (anything above a 4.0 is considered high) or a bone scan reveals sign of metastasis, even if the cancer has a high Gleason score, most physicians would admit that it is impossible to determine the stage of the cancer without performing surgery. The examination of the specimen collected during the surgery determines whether the cancer had already spread beyond the prostate. Even with a PSA above a 10.0 it is still possible that the cancer is still contained and that surgery can be curative.

Consider a case where a physician performed a PSA blood test on his patient when the patient was 52 years old. The PSA level was 2.0 at that time. This level is generally considered to be well within the normal range. Two years later the physician repeated the PSA test on his patient. This time the result indicated a level of 4.2. This was marked as high in the report provided by the lab that conducted the blood analysis. The physician saw the patient four times over the next two and a half years without ever informing his patient of the abnormal test result or performing a follow-up PSA test. It was more than three years after the abnormal test result that the physician finally performed another PSA test. At this point the results indicated a PSA level of 5.25.

This was the first time the physician informed his patient of the prior elevated level. At this time, the physician referred the patient to a urologist. A biopsy revealed that he had cancer. Surgery revealed that the cancer had already spread to the seminal vesicles and there was evidence of vascular as well as perineal invasion. Given that the cancer had already began spreading beyond the prostate the surgery was not curative. The patient thus underwent hormone therapy. His PSA levels then began to rise post-operatively. This is indicates a poor prognosis making it unlikely that the patient will survive five years beyond the surgery.

The law firm that handled this matter reported that the medical malpractice claim on behalf of the patient and his wife was settled for $ 550,000. The patient was 60 years old at the time of the settlement. The agreement left the possibility of a wrongful death claim should the patient not survive beyond the applicable statute of limitations.

As this case illustrates, the nature of the injury to the patient was not known until the results of the surgery were reviewed and showed that the cancer had, in fact, already begun spreading outside the prostate. And it was not until the patient
s PSA levels began to rise post-operatively that the true extent of the injury was know. At that point the attorney is in a position to be able to fully evaluate the patient’s claim. Notice that the law firm in this case limited the settlement only to the patient’s medical malpractice claim.

Understanding the inevitable meaning of the post-surgical rise in the PSA they made certain to leave the possibility of a wrongful death claim open. Of course whether there will later be a wrongful death claim that can be pursued will depend on several factors including whether the patient dies as a result of the cancer or of some other cause and whether it happens during the time frame permitted by the applicable statutes of limitations and statute of repose.